Fundamental physics from astronomical observations

Large astronomical surveys are providing an ever more complete picture of the observable Universe. There are already examples of surveys that have extracted all available information in the sky. One can try to explore the question of how much can be learned about fundamental physics from current and future cosmic variance limited astronomical surveys. In this colloquium I will describe how measurements of distances, positions and clocks can be used to shed light on the origin of the initial perturbations, measurements of the expansion history, neutrino masses and hierarchy and some other examples.